Guzmania of Venezuela

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The genus Guzmania (Bromeliaceae) in Venezuela
Compiled by Yuribia Vivas Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela Bruce Holst & Harry Luther Marie Selby Botanical Gardens The genus Guzmania was described by Hipólito Ruiz and José Pavón in 1802 in the "Flora Peruviana et Chilensis." The type species is Guzmania tricolor Ruiz & Pav. The name honors Spanish naturalist Anastasio Guzmán, a student of South American plants and animals (Grant & Zijlstra 1998).
Species of Guzmania are distributed from the southern USA (Florida) and Mexico to Brazil and Peru, including the Antilles; they are largely absent from lowland Amazonia. Figure modified from Smith & Downs, Flora Neotropica.
Most species of Guzmania are found in cloud forests at middle elevations. Photograph by Yuribia Vivas.
Guzmania is placed in the subfamily Tillandsioideae, and is distinguished from other members of the subfamily (Vriesea,Tillandsia, Catopsis, Racinaea, Alcantarea, Mezobromelia, and Werauhia) by having polystichously arranged flowers (that is, arranged in many planes on the inflorescence axis), white, whitish, yellow, or greenish petals that lack nectar scales, and having generally reddish brown-colored seeds. In general aspect, Guzmania is difficult to distinguish from Mezobromelia since both are polystichously flowered and may have similar color schemes, but the presence of nectar scales in Mezobromelia and absence inGuzmania separates them. Approximately 200 species and 17 varieties of Guzmania are known, making it the third largest genus in the subfamily, after Tillandsia and Vriesea.
The table below is a listing of Guzmania in Venezuela, with synonymy, types, phenology, and distribution. Column two contains photographs of live plants and the third column, type specimens. Click on the photos for enlarged images. Photographs of live plants by Yuribia Vivas, Francisco Oliva-Esteve, Vern Sawyer. We thank the following herbaria for providing specimens for this study: F, MO, NY, SEL, US, and VEN.
Venezuela States: AM=Amazonas, AN=Anzoategui, AP=Apure, AR=Aragua, BA=Barinas, BO=Bolívar, CA=Carabobo, CO=Cojedes, DA=Delta Amacuro, DC=Distrito Capital, FA=Falcón, GU=Guárico, LA=Lara, MI=Miranda, ME=Mérida, MO=Monagas, NE=Nueva Esparta, PO=Portuguesa, SU=Sucre, TA=Táchira, TR=Trujillo, YA=Yaracauy, ZU=Zulia
Guzmania acorifolia (Griseb.) Mez, in C. DC. Monogr. Phan. 9: 945. 1896. —Tillandsia acorifolia Griseb., Nachr. Ges. Wiss Gött. 1864: 19. 1865. Type: A. Fendler 1772 (HT: GOET); Venezuela. Flowering: Jan, May Distribution: AR, DF, MI Altitude: 1300-1950 m.
Guzmania altsonii L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 89: 7. 1930.TYPE: Altson 551 (T: K); Guyana. Synonym: Guzmania pleiosticha auct., pro parte non (Griseb.) Mez: sensu L.B.Sm. in Lasser, Fl. Venez. 12(1): 253. 1971; L.B. Sm., Fl Neotrop. Monogr. 14. 1317.1977. Flowering: Jan, Nov Distribution: AM, AR, BO Altitude: 470-1980
Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 48: 147. 1907. TYPE: Ule 5427 (HT: B [F photo]); Brasil. Flowering: Jan, Mar, May, Oct Distribution: AM Altitude: 80-1000 m.
Guzmania confinis L.B. Sm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28(1): 143. 1951.TYPE: J.A. Steyermark 57380 (HT: F); Venezuela. Fruiting: Mar, May, Jul, Nov Distribution: TA, TR, ZU Altitude: 2150-3475 m.
Guzmania coriostachya (Griseb.) Mez, in C.
DC. Monogr. Phan. 9: 914. 1896. —Caraguata coriostachya Griseb., Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gött. 1864: 21. 1865. TYPE: A. Fendler 2167 (HT: GOET [US photo]); Venezuela. Flowering: Jan, Mar, Apr,
MayDistribution: AN, AR, BO, FA, MI, MO, SU, TA, YA, ZU Altitude: 100-2650 m. Guzmania cylindrica L.B. Sm., Phytologia 5: 282. 1955. TYPE:Romero Castaneda 4465 (HT: COL [US photo]); Colombia.Flowering: Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Sep, Dec Distribution: AR, FA, LA, YA Altitude: 9001700 m.
Guzmania hedychioides L.B. Sm., Bull. Bromeliad Soc. 5: 69. 1955. TYPE: M.B. Foster & H. Teuscher 2740 (HT: US); Venezuela. Endemic Flowering: Oct Distribution: AR Altitude: 1700 m.
Guzmania lingulata (L. ) Mez, in C. DC. Monogr.
phan. 9: 899. 1896. —Tillandsia lingulata L., Sp. pl. 1: 286. 1753. TYPE:Sloan s.n. (HT: BM); Jamaica. Synonym: Caraguata lingulata (L.) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: 1827. Flowering: Jan, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Oct, Nov Distribution: AM, AP, AR,
BA, BO, CA, DA, DC, FA, LA, MI, MO, NE, PO, SU, TA, YA, ZU Altitude: 20-1500 m. Guzmania lychnis, Phytologia 4: 363. 1953. TYPE: Foster 2045(HT: GH; IT: COL); Colombia. Flowering: Mar, May, Jul, SepDistribution: TA, TR Altitude: 1600-2950 m.
Guzmania melinonis Regel, Gartenflora 34: 116.
1885. —"Guzmania melinoki" a typographical error according to Mez in C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 9: 908. 1896. TYPE: Linden in Petrograd Hortus s.n. (HT: LE); French Guiana. Flowering: AprDistribution: AM Altitude: 795-
1000 m. Guzmania membranacea L.B. Sm. & Steyerm., Acta Bot. Venez. 2(5--8): 380. 1968. TYPE: J.A. Steyermark 95022 (HT: VEN; IT: US photo); Venezuela. Endemic Flowering: Feb, MarDistribution: SU Altitude: 850-1273 m.
Guzmania mitis L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 31. 1932.TYPE: Killip & Smith 20195 (HT: GH; IT: US, NY); Colombia.Flowering: Jan, May, Jun, Jul, Dic Distribution: FA, LA ME, PO, TA, TR Altitude: 650-3000 m.
Guzmania monostachia (L. ) Rusby ex Mez,
in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 905. 1896. —Renealmia monostachia L., Sp. pl. 1: 287. 1753. TYPE: Plumier s.n. (HT: P); West Indies. Flowering: Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jul, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec Distribution: AM, AR, CA, DA, DC, FA, LA,
ME, MI, MO, NE, PO, SU, TA, YA, ZUAltitude: 40-1870 m. Guzmania mucronata (Griseb.) Mez, in C. DC.
Monogr. Phan. 9: 912. 1896. —Tillandsia mucronata Griseb., Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gött. 1864(1): 20. 1865. TYPE: A. Flender 2159 (HT: GOET [US photo]; IT: K); Venezuela. Flowering:
Jul, Sep, OctDistribution: AR, CA, DC, FA, LA, MI, YA Altitude: 400-1950 m. Guzmania musaica (Linden & André) Mez, in
C. DC. Monogr. Phan. 9: 898. 1896. —Tillandsia musaica Linden. & André, Ill. Hort. 20: 171. 1873. TYPE: Wallis in Linden Hortus s.n.(No preservado? [Smith, 1977]); Colombia. Flowering: MarDistribution: ZU Altitude:
100-350 m. Guzmania nubicola L.B. Sm., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 316. 1957. TYPE: B. Maguire, J.J. Wurdack & G.S. Bunting 36852 (HT: US; IT: NY, VEN); Venezuela. Flowering: DecDistribution: AM Altitude: 140-2100 m.
Guzmania nubigena L.B. Sm., Phytologia 4: 355. 1953. TYPE:M.B. Foster 2739 (HT: US; IT: VEN); Venezuela. Flowering: Jan, Mar, Apr, Sep, Oct Distribution: AR, DC, YA Altitude: 400-1800 m.
Guzmania patula Mez & Wercklé, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 255. 1916. TYPE: Wercklé s.n. (HT: B;
HT photo: B; IT: US); Costa Rica. Flowering: Feb, Mar, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, DecDistribution: AM, AR, BO, CA, LA, TA,
YA, ZU Altitude: 250-1760 m.
Note: Guzmania patula, as currently recognized in Venezuela, may consist of two separate taxa.
Guzmania pennellii L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 98:
30. 1932. —Thecophyllum pennellii (L.B. Sm) Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 32: 422. 1935. TYPE: Pennell 4344 (HT: NY); Colombia. Flowering: Jan, Mar Distribution: TA Altitude:
2300-2700 m.
Guzmania retusa L.B. Sm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28(1): 143. 1951.TYPE: J. Steyermark 60677 (HT: F); Venezuela. Flowering: NovDistribution: BO Altitude: 1000-1220 m.
Guzmania roezlii (E. Morren) Mez, in C. DC.
Monogr. phan. 9: 948. 1896. —Schlumbergeria roezli E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 28: 311. 1878. TYPE: Roezl in Morren Hortus s.n. (CT: LG; GH photo); Peru. Synonym: Tillandsia rigidula Baker, Journ. Bot. London 26: 44. 1888. Fruiting: Jul, Nov, dec Distribution: AM, BO, DA Altitude: 65-1300 m.
Guzmania sanguinea (André) André ex Mez, in C. DC. Monogr. Phan. 9: 901. 1896. —Tillandsia
sanguinea (André) André ex Mez, DC., Mon. Phan. 9: 901. 1986. TYPE: André 3369(HT: K [K photo]); Colombia. Synonym: Caraguata sanguinea André,
Rev. Hort. 55: 468. 1883. Guzmania crateriflora Mez & Werckle ex Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 9: 110. 1905. Flowering: Aug Distribution: DC, MI Altitude: 1000 m. Guzmania sphaeroidea (André) André ex Mez, in C. DC. Monogr. phan. 9: 942. 1896. —Caraguata
sphaeroidea André, Énum. Bromél. 6. 13 Dec. 1888; Rev. Hort. 60: 566. 16 Dec. 1888. TYPE: André 2685 (HT: K); Colombia. Synonym:Guzmania geniculata L.B.
Sm., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 42:282. Guzmania venamensis L.B.Sm., Phytologia 21: 88. 1971.Flowering: Jan, Feb, Apr, Aug, Dec Distribution: AM, BOAltitude: 900-2400 m. Guzmania squarrosa (Mez & Sodiro) L.B. Sm. & Pittendr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 43: 403. 1954 [as
"1953"]. —Thecophyllum squarrosum Mez & Sodiro, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 4: 877. 1904. TYPE: Sodiro 47 (HT: B); Ecuador. Synonym: Guzmania cryptantha L.B. Sm., Caldasia [1(5)]:6. 1942 Flowering: Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Oct Distribution: AM, AR, BO, DC, LA,
ME, PO, TA, TR, ZU Altitude: 600-3100 m. Guzmania steyermarkii L.B. Sm., Phytologia 7: 419. 1961.TYPE: J.A. Steyermark & S. Nilsson 71 (HT: US; IT: VEN); Venezuela. Synonym: Guzmania plumieri
auct. non (Griseb.) Mez: sensu L.B. Sm. in Lasser, Fl. Venez. 12(1): 246. 1971.Distribution: BO Altitude: 950-
1400 m.
Guzmania terrestris L.B. Sm. & Steyerm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 715. 1986. TYPE: Steyerm. 129596 (HT: US; IT: VEN, NY, MO); Venezuela. Flowering: Feb, Oct Distribution: AM Altitude: 1500-2800 m.
Guzmania ventricosa (Griseb.) Mez, in C. DC.
Monogr. Phan. 9: 929. 1896. —Tillandsia ventricosa Griseb., Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gött. 1864(1): 19. 1865. TYPE: A. Fendler 1517 (HT: GOET; IT: GH, K); Venezuela. Flowering: Jan, Feb, Oct, DecDistribution: AR, DC, MI, TR Altitude:
200-2640 m.
Guzmania virescens (Hook.) Mez, in C. DC.
Monogr. Phan. 9: 943. 1896. —Puya virescens Hook., Bot. Mag. 83: t. 4991. 1857 TYPE: Kew Hortus s.n. (Probablemente no existe HT [Smith, 1977]); Venezuela. Synonym: Caraguata beleana André,
Rev. Hort. 63: 114. 1891. Guzmania beleana André ex Mez in DC. Mon. Phan. 9: 944. 1896. Flowering: Jan Distribution: ARAltitude: 1250-1600
References Grant, J. and Zijlstra. 1998. An annotated catalogue of the generic names of the Bromeliaceae. Selbyana 19(1): 91-121. Gouda, E. 1987. Bromeliaceae, subfamily Tillandsioideae. In A.R.A. Gorts-van Rijn, ed. Flora the Guianas. Ser. A(3). Fam 189: 1-112. Holst, B. 1994. Checklist of Venezuelan Bromeliaceae with notes on species distribution by state and levels of endemism. Selbyana 15(1): 132-149. Holst, B. 1997. Bromeliaceae. En: J. Steyermark & P. Berry eds. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Vol. 3 (Araliaceae-Cactaceae). Missouri Bot. Gard. U.S.A. Luther, H. 2004. An alphabetical list of bromeliads binomials. Marie Selby Botanical Gardens. Bromeliad Society International. Ruiz, H. and J. Pavón. 1802. Flora Peruviana et Chilensis 3: 37-38. Extended Micro-Edition from International Documentation Centre AB Hagelby House, Tuma, Sweden. Smith, L. 1968. Bromeliaceae. En : A.A. Pulle & J. Laujouw eds. Flora de Suriname.Vol. 2 Part 2. E.J. Brill, Leiden. Netherlands. Smith, L. 1998.Bromeliaceae. En: K. Kubitzki ed. The families and genera of vascular plants. IV. Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae. Germany. Smith, L. and R. Downs. 1977. Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 14(2): 661-1492. Utley, J.F. 1994. Bromeliaceae. En: G. Davidse, M. Sousa y A.O. Chater col. Eds. Flora mesoamericana. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Vol. 6. Universidad Autónoma de México. México D.F.
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