Two new species of Epidendrumare described and illustrated. Both have lateral inflorescences, traditionally the diagnostic characteristic of section Pleuranthium. We suggest that the section is heterogeneous and probably polyphyletic. The Panamanian species, E. brachybotrys, is allied with other species of Epidendrum sect. Pleuranthium s. str. However, the Ecuadorian species, E. aristatum, is allied to E. tropidiodes, a Colombian species with terminal inflorescences.